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RTDs are sometimes referred to generally as resistance thermometers. In practice, an electrical current is transmitted through a piece of metal the RTD element or resistor located in proximity to the area where temperature is to be measured. The resistance value of the RTD element is then measured by an instrument. This resistance value is then correlated to temperature based upon the known resistance characteristics of the RTD element. How do RTDs Work? RTDs work on a basic correlation between metals and temperature. As the temperature of a metal increases, the metal’s resistance to the flow of electricity increases.

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You have got to have a nice, well calibrated variable resistance on the opposite side to the unknown resistance. The accuracy with which you can judge the unknown is limited by the calibration accuracy of the variable resistance. Using Ohm’s law to find an unknown resistance is a great way to do it. You just match the voltage you apply to the unknown based on the range of resistance you expect to encounter.

Suppose you had a short piece of heavy copper buss bar you wanted to measure the resistance of.

A check of the calibration found that the frequency was fairly close but certainly requiring some adjustment to be within specifications.

When it merged, it moved its corporate headquarters from Philadelphia to New York City. NYNEX was consolidated into this name by It was initially only available to customers in New York and Massachusetts. Individual domains would only be unblocked upon request. Twenty percent of qualified homes signed up by the end of the year. The three patents named were filed by Bell Atlantic in and relate to the conversion of IP addresses into phone numbers, a key technology of Vonage’s business.

Verizon Wireless reversed a controversial decision in September to deny NARAL Pro-Choice America a short code through which the organization could text consumers who had signed up for messaging from the group. They had initially refused the group access to a code by reserving the right to block “controversial or unsavory” messages. The company stated the overcharges were accidental and only amounted to a few dollars per customer. On February 7, , Verizon Wireless confirmed that 4chan.

Traffic was restored several days later. The company planned on a three-year continuous expansion of the 4G service. And in , they announced they were selling its wireline operations in Texas, Florida, and California to Frontier.

Chevron’s Wheatstone project faces 6-month delay

The YJC uses direct action organizing, advocacy, political education, transformative justice and activist arts to mobilize system-involved youth, families and our allies — both in the community and within lock-ups — to bring about change. The position will both ask the individual to raise substantial dollars for the organization as well as build the capacity of leaders in the organization to contribute to fundraising efforts.

The position is a three month contract with the possibility for renewal.

Additionally, we’ve increased bed capacity at the plant site and are updating our work plans to mitigate the impact to schedule.

How does an op amp work? How do I use an op amp? How do I use an op amp These are questions that I have asked at two periods in my life. The second time was when I dove headfirst back into analog electronics for my new job and had to re-teach myself a lot of things. I really appreciate the opportunity I had to re-learn everything because the second time around, I think I got it right. What is an op amp?

This symbol is an IDEAL op-amp, meaning it is impossible to construct one and really the expectations for the op amp are unrealistic. Inverting Ideal Op-amp OK, so now you know what the symbol is, but what does it mean? Well, the idea is you put two electrical signals into the inputs then the output changes accordingly.

It takes the difference between the inputs and amplifies it, hence operational amplifier, or op amp. You may have noticed that input A has a minus symbol and input B has a plus symbol.

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The entire RF box is fully shielded.

Learn how the device works here. One is connected to the body whose temperature is to be measured; this is the hot or measuring junction. The other junction is connected to a body of known temperature; this is the cold or reference junction. Therefore the thermocouple measures unknown temperature of the body with reference to the known temperature of the other body. They are as follows: The Seebeck effect states that when two different or unlike metals are joined together at two junctions, an electromotive force emf is generated at the two junctions.

The amount of emf generated is different for different combinations of the metals. As per the Peltier effect, when two dissimilar metals are joined together to form two junctions, emf is generated within the circuit due to the different temperatures of the two junctions of the circuit. As per the Thomson effect, when two unlike metals are joined together forming two junctions, the potential exists within the circuit due to temperature gradient along the entire length of the conductors within the circuit.

In most of the cases the emf suggested by the Thomson effect is very small and it can be neglected by making proper selection of the metals. The Peltier effect plays a prominent role in the working principle of the thermocouple. It comprises of two dissimilar metals, A and B. These are joined together to form two junctions, p and q, which are maintained at the temperatures T1 and T2 respectively.

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Wireless Digital Scale This scale is wireless. It may be useful where you can’t operate a normal scale, due to the weather outside, or if you don’t want to scare birds or other creatures away. With this scale you can weigh them. In this instructable, I used a 0 to 1 Kg load cell since I wanted to weigh hummingbirds and orioles that visited our nectar feeder.

One end of the load cell was attached to the eaves, and the other end has a hook from which the support string for the feeder hangs. Many other load cells are available in different weight ranges, and they all can be hooked up the same way, the only difference being the zero factor and range factor which can be changed in the Arduino sketch.

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Some of the test and monitoring equipment for the military was the best that could be produced at the time and no expense was spared in its construction. At the budget-built end, there were the countless test-gadgets intended for radio repairmen or radio hobbyists that might seem to barely be able to perform the intended task but clever designs sometimes resulted in very useful test instruments.

Biddle of Philadelphia imported these instruments and each box has his tag attached. Biddle was also a very early major builder and supplier of wireless equipment with Reginald Fessenden being one of his prominent customers over a long period of time. At the turn of the last century, many precision measurements had to be calculated because the measurement couldn’t be made directly since many of the instruments we take for granted today hadn’t been developed. A known precision resistance allowed one part of the equation to be selected and the remainder was then calculated.

Two output levels are provided along with an adjustable gain control.

Sorry about the vacancy. Hadn’t seen any posts pop up in ages, and forgot this was here until Ribcage sent me a message. I have made a lot of headway since this thread so I guess I can give my insights and updates as to what I have done. And where I am. Now, I understand and totally agree that I won’t be walking straight into an Operator’s Job. It is no longer a long Wait List, it is now based on merit and previous experience.

Now the entrance to enroll in the Cert II is based on relevant industry experience or at least a trade. Someone with minimal experience or none, does not get them cash. It is not the same as the Cert II, so you need to be employed as an Operator to enroll in those courses. The tickets I found to be me more desirable to gain employment were: Get to work, show the company I am committed, and work my way up from the mailroom so to speak.

I was told I was to work a couple days a week, and see what happens. By the end of the week, I began learning how to do pressure testing and was offered a full time job as a Trainee NDT Technician.

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Thermocouples Chapter 9 – Electrical Instrumentation Signals An interesting phenomenon applied in the field of instrumentation is the Seebeck effect, which is the production of a small voltage across the length of a wire due to a difference in temperature along that wire. This effect is most easily observed and applied with a junction of two dissimilar metals in contact, each metal producing a different Seebeck voltage along its length, which translates to a voltage between the two unjoined wire ends.

Most any pair of dissimilar metals will produce a measurable voltage when their junction is heated, some combinations of metals producing more voltage per degree of temperature than others:

Full metering of audio modulation levels and RF output is provided along with a fantastic attenuator circuit.

The raw data can be seen here but you can view some prettier graphs of the data here on analog. On a visit to Portland, Oregon, last summer my friend mentioned he had always wanted to put a load cell under a beehive to measure the weight of the hive over time. He thought it was a great project for SparkFun and I immediately started thinking how it might be done. This is a project that focuses on the technology and the lessons in the field, but I have only scratched the surface of beekeeping apiculture.

SparkFun is fortunate to have a handful of employees who are either beekeepers or related to beekeepers. They were nice enough to do the bee tending, I did the tech. Additionally, I am an engineer so data accuracy is important to me but the interpretation of that data should be left to research scientists. That said, check this out!

How does an op amp work? How do I use an op amp? — Part 1

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Be sure the free end of the load cell is clear of the plastic container and wires.

Chevron’s Wheatstone project faces 6-month delay

We are completing the work on all the piping modifications, you recall this is as a result of the acoustic-induced vibration analysis that was done, so that work should be finishing up in the month of August, and then that will allow us to start the recommissioning process at the plant.

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